The current pilot study investigated the psychological mechanisms behind ethnic outgroup aggression, a significant outcome of intergroup conflicts. While previous research suggested several impactful predictors of ethnic outgroup aggression, such as intergroup contact and nationalism, no attempt has been made to synthesize all these constructs into a single cross-cultural study. Building on existing research, this pilot study is the first to assess a refined framework where we tested a proposed mediation model according to nationalism and emotion regulation mediate the relationship between intergroup contact, susceptibility to persuasion, and intergroup anxiety on the one hand and ethnic outgroup aggression on the other hand within a cross-cultural sample. An online questionnaire was distributed using convenience sampling among 2482 students with an ethnic majority background living and studying in ten (European) countries. Multigroup path analysis supported the larger part of the hypothesized model where we found that emotion regulation partially mediated the relationship between susceptibility to persuasion as a predictor and aggression as an outcome. As expected, we found that the higher the susceptibility to persuasion, the higher the emotion regulation, and the higher the regulation, the lower the aggression in all countries. Our pilot study provided preliminary evidence that emotion regulation, nationalism and susceptibility to persuasion are critical for the understanding of ethnic outgroup aggression in ethnically diverse societies. Future research needs to be carried out focusing on the development of an intergroup anxiety assessment in which possible gender differences in assessed constructs are considered.
The creation of a social climate where all ethnic groups can harmoniously coexist is a central challenge for many countries today. Should we emphasize similarities and common ground or, conversely, recognize that there are important differences between groups? The current study examined relations between diversity ideologies (assimilation, colorblindness, multiculturalism, polyculturalism) and generalized and specific intergroup bias (against Chechens, Belarusians, Uzbeks, Chinese, and Jews and Muslims) among ethnic Russians (N = 701). In Study 1, colorblindness (ignoring differences) and polyculturalism (emphasizing interconnectivity) were associated with lower generalized intergroup bias and lower bias against Chechens, Uzbeks, and Chinese, but not Belarusians. Bias against Belarusians was lower among those who endorsed multiculturalism (emphasizing differences). In Study 2, multiculturalism was associated with higher implicit bias when the target was a Chechen but in general more proximal variables (positive or negative contact experience and perceived group similarity) were more robust predictors of intergroup bias than diversity ideologies. In Study 3, colorblindness and polyculturalism were related to lower levels of fearful attitudes against Muslims. Colorblindness was also associated with lower levels of Antisemitism in contrast to multiculturalism that had an opposite association. We place these results in the context of cultural distance and existing cultural stereotypes about different groups among the majority of Russians. The strengths and weaknesses of each diversity ideology for the mainstream cultural group are discussed. The results of the current study suggest that the most fruitful strategy for mainstream cultural groups for maintaining harmonious intergroup relations in diverse societies might be that of optimal distinctiveness.
Globalization, forced and voluntary migration, as well as the development of international relations result in increased cultural heterogeneity and, accordingly, increased frequency of intercultural contacts. Unfortunately, the massive clash of different cultures, ethnic groups and confessions is often accompanied by the emergence of cultural misunderstandings, prejudices and conflicts. From the point of view of scientific knowledge, intercultural conflict is a relatively new and poorly studied subject of psychology, which includes the need to create new tools for studying this kind of conflict. The article presents the results of the development and preliminary validation of The Questionnaire on Behavioral Strategies in Intercultural Conflict based on a motivational model for choosing a behavioral strategy. The development of the questionnaire took place in several stages and included a qualitative and quantitative methodology. The methodology was validated on a Russian sample (N = 256). The obtained results of approbation indicate rather high psychometric characteristics of the method as a research tool. The developed questionnaire describes behavior consistent with seven strategies: collaborating, competing, avoiding, accommodating, teaching norms, expressing negative emotions, and searching a third party. The questionnaire can be used by various specialists for the prevention and settlement of intercultural conflicts, when conducting trainings on ethnic tolerance and intercultural competence and communication, when developing recommendations for state and non-profit organizations dealing with the problems of interethnic relations, adaptation of refugees and migrants.
Unlike traditional teachers, tutors now are much less able to confine their practice to the classroom setting. Herein, we address the challenges of actual tutoring practice at one Master’s degree program comprising offline and online learning activities along with student work placements. Building on the autoethnography and narrative analysis we highlight core themes structuring tutoring experience. We examined the challenges we met. We offer suggestions for tutors supporting students in a blended learning environment, and we argue acknowledgment of different roles and strategies applied by tutors across learning contexts make them more productive and less vulnerable towards conflicting messages of other actors involved in instructional communication.
The skills of non-standard thinking and creativity play an important role in stress- ful situations. We hypothesized that stress factors influence the effectiveness of pass- ing the assessment by employees: high level of creativity increases the effectiveness of task execution. We conducted the experiment and used J. Guilford’s technique and tasks on creativity thinking, created by T. Lubart and G. Altshuller. The sample con- sisted of 200 examinees (92 females and 108 males), employees of different organiza- tions (age — from 23 to 60). The results show that time limitation as a stressful factor decreases the effectiveness of passing the assessment by employees with both low and high levels of creativity (p£0,01). Work in a pair does not influence the effectiveness of passing the assessment regardless of the level of creativity (p³0,05). Multitasking is stressful for employees with a low level of creativity (p£0,01). The results of our research can be taken as principles of psychological trainings for development of em ployees’ stress-resistance.
In the current paper, the interrelation between the friendliness of the home environment and family attitudes is investigated. The friendliness of the home environment includes three parameters: the number of functions provided by home (functionality), the congruence of these functions with inhabitants’ needs (relevance), and the home attachment. We assumed that friendly home environment contributes positively to the inhabitants’ family attitudes, and positive family attitudes, in turn, predict a perceived friendly home image.
The sample consisted of 393 participants (295 females and 98 males), students of different faculties of the Higher School of Economics. We used the Functionality of the Home Environment Questionnaire, the Relevance of the Home Environment Questionnaire (short version), the Home Attachment Questionnaire, and the Attitudinal Familism Scale.
The results of the regression analysis show that family attitudes are significantly related to such parameters as Home Attachment, Pragmatism, Protection, Plasticity, Self-Presentation, Ergonomics, and Development of the home environment. And, vice versa, almost all the parameters of the functionality and relevance of the home environment are significantly impacted by family attitudes. Home Attachment is significantly mutually related to attitudes towards family.
The study’s results can be helpful in design of the home environment, in forming individual profiles of the home environment preferences, and for intensification resource function of home as a factor of family atmosphere’ improvement.
В статье обсуждается ресурсный подход к совладающему поведению. Подчеркивается, что наряду личностными, инструментальными, социальными и другими ресурсами совладающего поведения элементы домашней среды – функциональность и релевантность домашней среды, а также привязанность к дому, могут быть рассмотрены в качестве важнейших ресурсов совладающего поведения в юношеском возрасте. Данные элементы лежат в основе формирования образа дома.
В исследовании приняло участие 344 респондента: 267 девушек и 77 юношей, студенты различных факультетов НИУ «Высшая школа экономики». Были использованы следующие опросники: опросники «Функциональность домашней среды», «Релевантность домашней среды», «Привязанность к дому» и «Опросник способов совладания» Р. Лазаруса и С. Фолкман в адаптации Т.Л. Крюковой и Е.В. Куфтяк.
Результаты факторного анализа позволили выделить позитивный образ дома, основываясь на параметрах функциональности и релевантности домашней среды, а также привязанности к ней. Эти параметры являются важным ресурсом совладающего поведения в юношеском возрасте. Результаты корреляционного анализа показали, что позитивный образ дома связан с выбором эффективных стратегий самоконтроля, поиска социальной поддержки, планирования решения проблем и позитивной переоценки, а также с неэффективной стратегий конфронтационного копинга.
Результаты исследования могут быть использованы в психологическом консультировании для создания индивидуальных профилей предпочтений домашней среды. Они могут помочь в моделировании или изменении домашнего пространства в соответствии с потребностями и ожиданиями личности, позволяя, таким образом, использовать домашнюю среду как важнейший ресурс совладающего поведения и психологического благополучия личности.
In the following article we discuss gender differences in using the home environment as a resource of coping behavior in youth. The sample for our study consisted of 344 participants: 267 young women and 77 young men, mean age - 19.1, students of different faculties in HRU HSE. We used the “Functionality of the Home Environment Questionnaire”, the “Relevance of the Home Environment Questionnaire”, the “Home Attachment Questionnaire”, and the “Ways of Coping Questionnaire”.Our results show gender differences in the choice of the following coping strategies: distancing, seeking social support, escape-avoidance, and planning of problem solving. We have also revealed gender differences in the level of home attachment - young ladies are more home attached than young men. Gender differences in the level of functionality and relevance of the home environment have not been displayed. The study material can help to have a number of practical recommendations and can help to create the psychological training in using opportunities of the home environment for a personality's development and well-being.
The goal of the research was investigating the personality features of coping behaviour in family conflicts. The results of the empirical research (297 respondents) are given in this article. Classification of the four personality types showing various features of coping behaviour in a situation of family conflicts – dependent, steady, negative, and diffuse, was the result of the research. The research results allow us to suggest that hardiness level has become the main factor in the choice of coping strategies in a situation of family conflicts.
The article is devoted to the investigation on the connections between the home representation and moral motives level in youth. The following hypotheses were examined: 1) the higher is the home environment friendliness the stronger are inhabitants' moral motives 2) this connection is moderated by gender. 550 students (25% males) of different trades participated in the survey (Mage=20,6, SDage=2,3. To assess their home representations, multi-scale questionnaires the Functionality of the home environment and the Relevance of the home environment were used (Nartova-Bochaver et al., 2015, 2017), to examine the moral motives level the Moral Motives Model (MMM) scale was used (Janoff-Bulman, Carnes, 2013). It is found that the friendliness of the home environment is really connected with moral motives but the multi-regression analysis showed their different directions depending on gender: whereas in males, friendly home contributed to the high moral motives level, in females, on contrast, moral motives contributed to the development of the friendly home representation. Results are discussed taking into consideration routine techniques of the home personalization and horizons of the home image actualization.
The process of organizational decision-making depends on a number of factors. We present the results of our experimental study based on L. Thompson, J. Wang, and B. Gunia’s level model of decision-making factors (Thompson, Wang, & Gunia, 2010). We considered interpersonal level of organizational decision-making process, thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the affective, situational, and cognitive factors of organizational decision-making about the choice of interaction strategies under conditions of uncertainty. Methodolgy. We describe the results of the experiment in which the process of decision-making about the choice of interaction strategies was modeled with the help of “Prisoners’ Dilemma” from the game theory. In addition, we used the adapted version of PANAS technique (Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale) to diagnose a person’s emotional state (Osin, 2012). The study involved 120 subjects, 69 women and 51 men, employees of Russian organizations, mean age was 36.8 years. All subjects were divided into six groups of 20 examinees — one control group and five experimental groups. Findings. The results showed that the affective factor of both positive and negative valence influences the choice of the interaction strategy. The positive emotions increase the likelihood of a decision in favor of a cooperation strategy (χ2 , р = 0.001), the negative emotions increase the probability of the choice of a confrontation strategy (χ2 , р = 0.01). Time shortage as the situational factor influences the employees’ choice of confrontation strategy (χ2 , р = 0.019). In forming the attitude, aimed at the choice of a cooperation strategy, the likelihood of a decision-making in accordance with this attitude increases (χ2, р = 0.01). The other way, in forming the attitude, aimed at the choice of a cooperation strategy, the likelihood of a decision-making in accordance with this attitude does not change (χ2, р = 0.125). Value of the results. On the basis of these results a number of practical recommendations and a program of psychological training for employees can be formulated.
Comparative analysis of psychological research on the role of the third party in conflicts in Russian and foreign traditions is presented in this article. The author's classification of the third party’s intervention strategies in a conflict based on two criteria is discussed. The first criterion is a degree of the third party’s activity in a conflict. The second criterion is the aspect which thirdparty emphasizes in the process of solving a conflict — the relations between disputants and their emotions, or the result of a conflict. Hence, a classification of the third party’s intervention strategies in solving interpersonal conflicts can be presented. For example, when a third party’s activity is high and the third party emphasizes the relations between disputants and their emotions in the process of solving a conflict, the third party’s intervention strategies are facilitative, evaluative, transformative, as well as mediation strategies. When the third party’s activity is high and the third party emphasizes the outcome of a conflict, the third party’s intervention strategies are pressing, directive, arbitration, problem-solving, and deal-making. Then, when the third party’s activity is low and the third party emphasizes the relations between disputants and their emotions in the process of solving conflicts, the third party’s intervention strategies are differentiated, narrative, storytelling, and understanding-based. Finally, when third party’s activity is low and the third party emphasizes the result of a conflict, the third party’s intervention strategies are analytic, neutral, strategic, pragmatic, as well as orchestration strategies. Different strategies of third-party intervention in a conflict and their efficiency are analyzed.
This article examines the role of mediation strategies in solving interpersonal confl icts. We consider solving interpersonal confl icts as disputants’ choice of the facilitating strategy and model three mediation strategies in our experimental design: facilitating, neutral, and pressing. The sample for our study consisted of 312 participants: 179 young women and 133 young men, upperclassmen in high school. Th e participants ranged in age from 14 to 18 years old (the median age was 16.7). In addition, 18 specifi cally instructed experimenters performed the role of the mediator. Our experimental study was divided into two sets based on two conditions: a group and separate dyads based on diff erent ways of solving confl icts. Th e main goal of the experiment was to create a confl ict situation by means of a game situation simulating confl ict for a limited resource. This resource was a high grade, which parties could obtain only by solving the crossword puzzle containing biological words. Th e study’s results showed that the mediator’s strategy has an impact on the process of solving interpersonal confl icts. Our results proved that the effi ciency of the mediator’s strategy diff ers depending on whether it is in a confl ict in a separate dyad or in a confl ict arising in a dyad within a social group. Th e pressing strategy appeared to be the most eff ective when compared with others in solving an interpersonal confl ict that had arisen in a dyad within a social group. Th e facilitating strategy appeared to be the most eff ective in comparison with others in solving an interpersonal confl ict that had arisen in a separate dyad. Th e results of this study can be used in the development of methodical guidelines for teachers, who often act as mediators in solving confl icts among teenagers, and for the teenagers themselves.
We present the results of testing the hypothesis about the influence of affective, cognitive and situational factors on decision-making. We describe an experiment in which the process of negotiating was modeled with the help of “Prisoners’ Dilemma” game theory. The study involved 150 subjects, 86 women and 64 men, mean age was 20.6 years. The results showed that positive emotions increase the likelihood of a decision in favor of a strategy of cooperation. With negative emotions, the opponents tend to choose a strategy of confrontation. In forming the effect of the disposition, aimed at the choice of cooperation strategy, the likelihood of a decision-making in accordance with this disposition increases. If time is short, the opponent chooses a strategy of confrontation. On the basis of these results a number of practical recommendations and a program of psychological training can be formulated.
The aim of our research is studying of the choice of coping strategies by foreign students, who came to Moscow to study. We hypothesized that international student changes his or her previous coping strategies with difficulties in education process in the conditions of the educational environment change: less adaptive coping strategies will be replaced by a more adaptive ones. The sample was 35 foreign students of different faculties in Higher School of Economics, aged between 22 and 35 years old. We used three questionnaires - «Sociocultural Adaptation Scale», «COPE Inventory», «The Brief COPE», as well as we conducted a structured interview. Our results showed that foreign students in general do not change their coping strategies in a new educational environment. The only strategy that has significantly changed is the strategy of humor. In addition, the study showed that the level of foreign students’ sociocultural adaptation is average. Our results can contribute to the development of practical recommendations, applied programs, and trainings to adapt students who come from abroad.
The problem of stress influence on the employee’s performance is still relevant due to modern work conditions in Russian organizations. An assessment situation may be a special type of stressor to which employees are often not ready. Stress factors in the majority adversely affect performance by reducing the creativity level. At the same time there should be pointed out the motivating power that eustress may have on the personal creativity. This paper examines the hypothesis that eustress increases personal creativity in a case of the preceding positive affective stimulus. 300 subjects (189 male and 111 female, ages 24 to 67) have participated in our research. Each subject is offered to take J. Gilfords’ and «Google»’s company creativity test. Depending on the type of the experimental group subjects were given a stress or (and) affective influence. The results showed an ambiguous eustress effect on the personal creativity. Parallel positive influence should be the same intensity as the stressor in order to reduce its negative impact on the organism. In addition, the stressors type affects employee’s creativity too. Restriction of personal zone leads to increased creativity in the case of the preceding positive affective influence, and negative comments and time limit are too strong stressors and do not increase creativity level. The results of our research can be taken as principles of psychological trainings and help to improve quality of work in organizations.